Work Environment

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Human Resources Management Tools: Dealing with Challenge and Conflict

This guide developed by the Cultural Careers Council of Ontario focuses on resolving the conflicts and challenges that you face with these individuals. But the concepts apply equally well when you have to mediate a conflict between two other people who have different goals or needs. As a cultural manager you may have to handle and resolve conflicts with your employees, your superior, peer managers, BoardYour board of directors provides governance to your organization. members and patrons. 

Key Questions to Consider When Thinking About Conflicts of Interest

This information fact sheet was developed by the Centre for Community

The broad group of people who are stakeholders of an organization. Extending beyond the people that enter our buildings and use our services, an organization’s community may include cultural groups, sectoral partners, and other groups of people joined together by common identity, geography, and other bonds. Often where we use ‘community’ the word is actually short for multiple communities.

Organizations. They state that a conflict of interest occurs when someone in a position of trust has competing professional or personal interests. These competing interests can possibly interfere with the person’s ability to remain impartial as they fulfill their duties.

COCo – The Centre for Community Organizations Published November 2010

Basic Facilitation Skills

This manual provides a basic guide for those who are periodically called upon to facilitate and for those who are first time facilitators. It focuses on the role of the facilitator in relation to meetings. The document contains facilitation skills, techniques, and competencies.

Published By: The Human Leadership

When referring to an ‘organization’s leadership’, we mean the board, ED and senior management.

and Development Division of the American Society for Quality The Association for Quality and Participation. The International Association of Facilitators May 2002

YMCA of Western Ontario/Incident Report

This is a copy of an incident report used by the YMCA of Western Ontario for all incidents or accidents as part of a risk management

Risk management involves examining a situation and 1) identifying what can go wrong, 2) identifying measures to avoid such problems, and 3) if something does go wrong, identifying steps that can be taken to lessen the negative impact. These measures may include the use of policies, procedures, and protections (such as insurance or education). Risks can be related, for example, to financial loss, workplace safety issues including abuse & physical harm or injury, property damage, or loss of reputation.

and mitigation practice. The numerous areas and sections require users to provide detailed information related to the incident and can cover a wide range of issues (i.e. theft, health and well-being, workplace safety, emergency care etc.) (pp. 1-2). One of the most important areas included in the incident report is a section dedicated to follow-up and the actions taken (p. 2). This resource can serve as an important guiding framework for agencies looking to develop their own unique incident/accident reports as part of a risk management and human resources practice.

YMCA of Western Ontario. (July 2011). YMCA of Western Ontario/Incident Report. 1-2. London, Ontario, Canada, 

Eight Essentials for Creating Accessible PDF Documents

This online tutorial video provides individuals with information pertaining to creating accessible PDF documents along with several follow-up tutorials. One should be aware of formatting and the sequencing of information that is presented in a PDF document. Bookmarks and articles to assist in organizing information for the reader as well as the use of semantic tags. The author also states that all images should be accompanied by text, but if the description of an image exceeds 255 words an appendix should be added at the end of the document. Attention to detail including the use of clear, legible font and the use of colour and patterns to accompany information (i.e. tables and graphs) can ensure a document is more accessible as well. Benbow, Timothy. (April 2011). Eight Essentials for Creating Accessible PDF Documents. University of California Fullerton. 15:13. Retrieved from YouTube.

Toward a Theory of Managing Organizational Conflict

This resource provides an extensive and thorough overview of the conflict resolution and management

Includes an organization’s Executive Director and managers, but not staff or supervisors. See also definition for “staff.”

process, two important models that organizations can use to formulate effective conflict resolution and management procedures and policies. The paper begins by delving into the 6 principal instances when conflict can occur (p 207) and then continues by offering several criteria for conflict management, including: organizational learning and effectiveness, needs of stakeholders, and ethics (p 209). An important piece of information offered for agencies is to incorporate a ‘double loop process’ for managing conflict, essentially, examining conflict solutions from both a micro and macro perspective (p 212). A useful table mapping the styles of handling interpersonal conflict with situations (p 219) and the conflict management model (p 222) are particularly worth noting for agencies.

Rahim, M. (2002). Toward a Theory of Managing Organizational Conflict. The International Journal of Conflict Management. 13(3). 206-235. Bingley, United Kingdom.

Depending on the Angle: Perspectives of Conflict and Workplace Climate

This article centres on research and case studies to identify different styles of management

Includes an organization’s Executive Director and managers, but not staff or supervisors. See also definition for “staff.”

and different approaches to conflict. It is premised on the idea that even though some of the same workplace issues exist in different organizations, the outcomes in terms of organizational climate may not necessarily be the same (p ii). The most salient point of this piece is the discussion portion at the end (p 62), which provides readers with an interesting and useful table linking similar workplace issues with key perspectives, management styles, and organizational climate (p 62). One interesting aspect is a management style to foster increased communication, where organizations would involve employees to open the flow of information and this ‘facilitated a high level of trust’ (p 65). It advocates for agencies to adopt a participatory approach, which views conflict as a positive force since ‘[it] can force employers to look at their own systems in order to see what they can do differently to make life easier and more functional for all parties involved (p 68).

Pike, K. (January, 2009). Depending on the Angle: Perspectives of Conflict and       Workplace Climate. 1-82. Ithaca, New York, United States.

 

The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A Practitioner’s Guide

This practitioner’s guide to conflict provides users with a great deal of useful information so that individuals can better understand the many dimensions and guises of conflict. It provides a useful definition of conflict, stating that ‘Conflict may be viewed as occurring along cognitive (perception), emotional (feeling), and [behavioural] (action) dimensions’ (p 2). The article focuses on conflict as a model which is centred on human needs the drive actions. Among these needs, the author includes interests (pp. 9-10), identity-based needs (pp. 10-12), and the desire for expression and for outcome (p 12-13). Although the guide employs an academic perspective, these ideas are important and serve as crucial foundations for any organizational policy, procedure, or process for resolving and/or managing conflict in the workplace.

Mayer, B. (April 4, 2000). The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A Practitioner’s Guide. 1-14. San Francisco, United States. 

Managing Board Conflict

This resource lends executive directors several strategies and considerations for addressing and managing conflict at the boardYour board of directors provides governance to your organization. level. This resource begins by examining the spectrum of board conflict, a spectrum divided into three distinct categories: passive board, embattled board, and harmonious board (p 2) and continues by describing the many guises of conflict (p 3). Several tips and procedures are offered so that executive directors and board members can manage better with conflict, in order to ensure that conflict can be channeled constructively and can be used to illicit positive change. These strategies include: establishing a code of conduct for board members and the executive director (p 7), frame conflict as an exercise in ‘win-win’ negotiation (p 7), and even celebrating agreements and new understandings (p 8).  

Macdonald, E. (2003). Managing Board Conflict. Non-Profit Sector

Used broadly to define a group or cluster of agencies that share some commonality. Here ‘the sector’ refers to community based agencies that serve immigrants and refugees in Ontario. Other relevant sectors include the broader non‐profit sector (sometimes referred to as the voluntary sector), and the community social services sector.

Leadership

When referring to an ‘organization’s leadership’, we mean the board, ED and senior management.

     Program, Dalhousie University
. 1-9. Halifax, Canada.

A Theory-Based Measure of Conflict Management Strategies in the Workplace

 

This is a work of scholarly research that sheds important light on important conflict management

Includes an organization’s Executive Director and managers, but not staff or supervisors. See also definition for “staff.”

strategies and procedures that managers can adopt and implement at the organizational level. It begins by describing some of the dimensions of conflict management theory with an emphasis on the five distinct conflict management strategies rooted in Dual Concern Theory (p 646).  The study continues by arguing that conflict management is the product of both structure (or lack of structure) and personality/emotional reactions to situations (p 664), though developing conflict management policies that note the various conflict styles can provide a much more stable framework for employees looking to address and manage conflict in the workplace.

De Dreu, C; Evers, A; Beersma, B; Luwer, E; Nauta, A. (2001). A Theory-Based Measure of Conflict Management Strategies in the Workplace. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 22. 645-668. Somerset, New Jersey, United States.

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